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The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act-what it means for Homeowners

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The following is a summary of provisions provided by the National Association of Realtors that might be of interest. You should consult a tax professional about your own personal situation.

All individual provisions are generally effective after December 31, 2017 for the 2018 tax filing year and expire on December 31, 2025 unless otherwise noted. The provisions do not affect tax filings for 2017 unless noted.

Major Provisions Affecting Current and Prospective Homeowners

Tax Rate Reductions

  • · The new law provides generally lower tax rates for all individual tax filers. While this does not mean that every American will pay lower taxes under these changes, many will. The total size of the tax cut from the rate reductions equals more than $1.2 trillion over ten years.
  • · The tax rate schedule retains seven brackets with slightly lower marginal rates of 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35%, and 37%.
  • · The final bill retains the current-law maximum rates on net capital gains (generally, 15% maximum rate but 20% for those in the highest tax bracket; 25% rate on “recapture” of depreciation from real property).

Tax Brackets for Ordinary Income Under Current Law and the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (2018 Tax Year) Single Filer

Current Law

Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

10%

$0-$9,525

10%

$0 - $9,525

15%

$9,525 - $38,700

12%

$9,525 - $38,700

25%

$38,700 - $93,700

22%

$38,700 - $82,500

28%

$93,700 - $195,450

24%

$82,500 - $157,500

33%

$195,450 - $424,950

32%

$157,500 - $200,000

35%

$424,950 - $426,700

35%

$200,000 - $500,000

39.6%

$426,700+

37%

$500,000

Tax Brackets for Ordinary Income Under Current Law and the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (2018 Tax Year) Married Filing Jointly

Current Law

Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

10%

$0 - $19,050

10%

$0 - $19,050

15%

$19,050 - $77,400

12%

$19,050 - $77,400

25%

$77,400 - $156,150

22%

$77,400 - $165,000

28%

$156,150 - $237,950

24%

$165,000 - $315,000

33%

$237,950 - $424,950

32%

$315,000 - $400,000

35%

$424,950 - $480,050

35%

$400,000 - $600,000

39.6%

$480,050+

37%

$600,000+

Exclusion of Gain on Sale of a Principal Residence

  • · The final bill retains current law.

Mortgage Interest Deduction

  • · The final bill reduces the limit on deductible mortgage debt to $750,000 for new loans taken out after 12/14/17. Current loans of up to $1 million are grandfathered and are not subject to the new $750,000 cap. Neither limit is indexed for inflation.
  • · Homeowners may refinance mortgage debts existing on 12/14/17 up to $1 million and still deduct the interest, so long as the new loan does not exceed the amount of the mortgage being refinanced.
  • · The final bill repeals the deduction for interest paid on home equity debt through 12/31/25. Interest is still deductible on home equity loans (or second mortgages) if the proceeds are used to substantially improve the residence.
  • · Interest remains deductible on second homes, but subject to the $1 million / $750,000 limits.

Deduction for State and Local Taxes

  • · The final bill allows an itemized deduction of up to $10,000 for the total of state and local property taxes and income or sales taxes. This $10,000 limit applies for both single and married filers and is not indexed for inflation.
  • · The final bill also specifically precludes the deduction of 2018 state and local income taxes prepaid in 2017.

Standard Deduction

  • · The final bill provides a standard deduction of $12,000 for single individuals and $24,000 for joint returns. The new standard deduction is indexed for inflation.

Repeal of Personal Exemptions

  • · Under the prior law, tax filers could deduct $4,150 in 2018 for the filer and his or her spouse, if any, and for each dependent. These exemptions have been repealed in the new law.

Mortgage Credit Certificates (MCCs)

  • · The final bill retains current law.

Deduction for Medical Expenses

  • · The final bill retains the deduction for medical expenses (including decreasing the 10% floor to 7.5% floor for 2018).

Child Credit

  • · The final bill increases the child tax credit to $2,000 from $1,000 and keeps the age limit at 16 and younger. The income phase-out to claim the child credit was increased significantly from ($55,000 single/$110,000 married) under current law to $500,000 for all filers in the final bill.

Student Loan Interest Deduction

  • · The final bill retains current law, allowing deductibility of student loan debt up to $2,500, subject to income phase-outs.

Deduction for Casualty Losses

  • · The final bill provides a deduction only if a loss is attributable to a presidentially-declared disaster.

Moving Expenses

  • · The final bill repeals moving expense deduction and exclusion, except for members of the Armed Forces.

Major Provisions Affecting Commercial Real Estate
Like-Kind Exchanges

  • · The final bill retains the current Section 1031 Like Kind Exchange rules for real property. It repeals the use of Section 1031 for personal property, such as art work, auto fleets, heavy equipment, etc.

Carried Interest

  • · The final bill includes the House and Senate language requiring a 3-year holding period to qualify for current-law (capital gains) treatment.

Cost Recovery (Depreciation)

  • · The final bill retains the current recovery periods for nonresidential real property (39 years), residential rental property (27.5 years) and qualified improvements (15 years). The bill also replaces separate definitions for qualified Restaurant, Leasehold, and Retail improvements with one definition of “Qualified Improvement Property.”

Qualified Private Activity Bonds

  • · The final bill retains the deductibility of qualified private activity bonds used in constructing affordable housing, local transportation and infrastructure projects and for state and local mortgage bond programs.

Low Income Housing Tax Credit

  • · The final bill retains current law. However, a lower corporate rate will negatively impact the value of the credits in the future, and will result in less low-income housing being developed.

Rehabilitation Credit (Historic Tax Credit)

  • · The final bill repeals the current-law 10% credit for pre-1936 buildings, but retains the current 20% credit for certified historic structures (but modified so the credit is allowable over a 5-year period based on a ratable share (20%) each year).